Posts from September 2022

Lyra V2 - a better, faster, and more versatile speech codec

Friday, September 30, 2022

Since we open sourced the first version of Lyra on GitHub last year, we are delighted to see a vibrant community growing around it, with thousands of stars, hundreds of forks, and many comments and pull requests. There are people who fixed and formatted our code, built continuous integration for the project, and even added support for Web Assembly.

We are incredibly grateful for all these contributions, and we also heard the community's feedback, asking us to improve Lyra. Some examples of what developers wanted were to run Lyra on more platforms, develop applications in more languages; and for a model that computes faster with more bitrate options and lower latency, and better audio quality with fewer artifacts.

That's why we are now releasing Lyra V2, with a new architecture that enjoys a wider platform support, provides scalable bitrate capabilities, has better performance, and generates higher quality audio. With this release, we hope to continue to evolve with the community, and with its collective creativity, see new applications being developed and new directions emerging.

New Architecture

Lyra V2 is based on an end-to-end neural audio codec called SoundStream. The architecture has a residual vector quantizer (RVQ) sitting before and after the transmission channel, which quantizes the encoded information into a bitstream and reconstructs it on the decoder side.

Lyra V2's SoundStream architecture
The integration of RVQ into the architecture allows changing the bitrate of Lyra V2 at any time by selecting the number of quantizers to use. When more quantizers are used, higher quality audio is generated (at a cost of a higher bitrate). In Lyra V2, we support three different bitrates: 3.2 kps, 6 kbps, and 9.2 kbps. This enables developers to choose a bitrate most suitable for their network condition and quality requirements.

Lyra V2's model is exported in TensorFlow Lite, TensorFlow's lightweight cross-platform solution for mobile and embedded devices, which supports various platforms and hardware accelerations. The code is tested on Android phones and Linux, with experimental Mac and Windows support. Operation on iOS and other embedded platforms is not currently supported, although we expect it is possible with additional effort. Moreover, this paradigm opens Lyra to any future platform supported by TensorFlow Lite.

Better Performance

With the new architecture, the delay is reduced from 100 ms with the previous version to 20 ms. In this regard, Lyra V2 is comparable to the most widely used audio codec Opus for WebRTC, which has a typical delay of 26.5 ms, 46.5 ms, and 66.5 ms.

Lyra V2 also encodes and decodes five times faster than the previous version. On a Pixel 6 Pro phone, Lyra V2 takes 0.57 ms to encode and decode a 20 ms audio frame, which is 35 times faster than real time. The reduced complexity means that more phones can run Lyra V2 in real time than V1, and that the overall battery consumption is lowered.

Higher Quality

Driven by the advance of machine learning research over the years, the quality of the generated audio is also improved. Our listening tests show that the audio quality (measured in MUSHRA score, an indication of subjective quality) of Lyra V2 at 3.2 kbps, 6 kbps, and
9.2 kbps measures up to Opus at 10 kbps, 13 kbps, and 14 kbps respectively.

Lyra vs. Opus at various bitrates

Sample 1

Sample 2


Opus       @6kbps


Opus     @10kbps

LyraV2 @3.2kbps

Opus           @13k

LyraV2    @6kbps

Opus     @14kbps

LyraV2 @9.2kbps

This makes Lyra V2 a competitive alternative to other state-of-the-art telephony codecs. While Lyra V1 already compares favorably to the Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR-NB) codec, Lyra V2 further outperforms Enhanced Voice Services (EVS) and Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMR-WB), and is on par with Opus, all the while using only 50% - 60% of their bandwidth.

Lyra vs. state-of-the-art codecs

Sample 1

Sample 2






Opus           @13kbps

LyraV2    @6kbps

This means more devices can be connected in bandwidth-constrained environments, or that additional information can be sent over the network to reduce voice choppiness through forward error correction and packet loss concealment.

Open Source Release

Lyra V2 continues to provide what is already in Lyra V1 (the build tools, the testing frameworks, the C++ encoding and decoding API, the signal processing toolchain, and the example Android app). Developers who have experience with the Lyra V1 API will find that the V2 API looks familiar, but with a few changes. For example, now it's possible to change bitrates during encoding (more information is available in the release notes). In addition, the model definitions and weights are included as .tflite files. As with V1, this release is a beta version and the API and bitstream are expected to change. The code for running Lyra is open sourced under the Apache license. We can’t wait to see what innovative applications people will create with the new and improved Lyra!

By Hengchin Yeh - Chrome


The following people helped make the open source release possible: from Chrome: Alejandro Luebs, Michael Chinen, Andrew Storus, Tom Denton, Felicia Lim, Bastiaan Kleijn, Jan Skoglund, Yaowu Xu, Jamieson Brettle, Omer Osman, Matt Frost, Jim Bankoski; and from Google Research: Neil Zeghidour, Marco Tagliasacchi

GSoC 2022: The first phase of completed projects

Tuesday, September 20, 2022

Google Summer of Code (GSoC) is a global, online program focused on bringing new contributors into open source software development. GSoC contributors work with an open source organization on a 12+ week programming project under the guidance of mentors. The updates to the program beginning in 2022 included a rolling timeline, which allowed considerable flexibility for contributors to either finish their projects in 12 weeks or extend their deadline up to 22 weeks. We are happy to announce that 755 contributors from 51 countries have successfully completed this year’s program thus far. Congratulations!

No GSoC is complete without our dedicated mentors and organization administrators from all around the globe. In its 18th year of the program, GSoC continues to thrive due to its robust mentor community. There are 198 open source organizations—and over 2,000 mentors from 76 countries—that are participating in the 2022 program. A sincere thank you to our mentors and organization administrators for guiding and supporting our contributors this year.

Throughout the course of the program, evaluations provide us a window to the GSoC experience that only a contributor or a mentor have. Evaluations have also influenced a number of GSoC program changes and events. At the suggestion of last year’s contributors, we held this year’s Contributor Summit earlier with several talks on how to have a successful Google Summer of Code. Mentor and contributor comments helped validate the changes to both projects and contributors that expanded the reach and flexibility of GSoC in 2022. We also held feedback sessions with our mentors to talk through their questions, suggestions and opinions on the changes we implemented this year. Our contributors and mentors inspire GSoC administrators too, and for that, we are truly grateful.

We’ll be back in a couple of months to give a final update on the GSoC projects that will conclude in October and November. Google Summer of Code 2022 hasn’t fully ended just yet, so please stay tuned!

By Romina Vicente – Google Open Source Programs Office

Co-simulating ML with Springbok using Renode

Wednesday, September 14, 2022

The landscape of Machine Learning software libraries and models is evolving rapidly, and to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for memory and compute while managing latency, power and security considerations, hardware must be developed in an iterative process alongside the workloads it is meant to run.

With its open architecture, custom instructions support and flexible vector extensions, the RISC-V ISA offers an unprecedented capacity for such co-design. And by energizing the open hardware ecosystem, RISC-V has supercharged research and innovation into how to improve chipmaking itself to better leverage the methods and suit the needs of software. Initiatives such as Google’s OpenMPW Shuttle show how a more open and software-focused approach to building hardware, are key to enabling a new wave of more powerful and transparent ML-focused solutions.

A RISC-V-based ML accelerator with a HW/SW co-design flow

In the past months, Google Research has joined efforts with Antmicro to work on a silicon project that can serve as a template for efficient hardware-software co-design. For their secure ML solution, the Google Research team supported by Antmicro has been developing a completely open source, rapid pre-silicon ML development flow using Renode, Antmicro’s open source simulation framework.

This builds on the result of cooperation from last year in which Antmicro implemented Renode support for RISC-V Vector extensions, which are used in the Google team’s RISC-V based ML accelerator codenamed Springbok. To allow a more well-rounded developer experience, as part of the project Antmicro is also working on improving the support for the underlying SoC and a large number of user oriented features such as OS-aware debugging, performance optimizations, payload profiling and performance measurement capabilities.

Springbok is part of Google’s AmbiML project that aims to create an open source ML development ecosystem centered on privacy and security. By using the RISC-V Vector extensions, the Google Research team has a standard but flexible way to parallelize the matrix multiply and accumulate operations that are universal in ML payloads. And thanks to Renode, the team can make informed choices as to how exactly to leverage RISC-V’s flexibility by analyzing tradeoffs between speed, complexity and specialization in a practical, iterative fashion using data generated by Renode and the text-based configuration capabilities that let them play around with hardware composition and functionality in a matter of minutes, not days.

Diagram of A RISC-V-based ML accelerator with a HW/SW co-design flow

On the ML software side, the ecosystem revolves around IREE—Google’s research project developing an open source ML compiler and runtime for constrained devices, based on LLVM MLIR.

IREE allows you to load models from typical ML frameworks such as TensorFlow or TensorFlow Lite and then convert them to Intermediate Representation (MLIR), which later goes through optimizations on graph level and then through an LLVM compilation flow to get the best-fitted runtime for a specific target. When it comes to deploying models on target devices, IREE provides APIs for both the C and Python programming languages as well as a TFLite C API which provides the same convention as TFLite for model loading, tensor management and inference invoking.

Using these runtimes, the model can be deployed and tested, debugged, benchmarked and executed on the target device or in a simulation environment like Renode.

Demoing the flow at Spring 2022 RISC-V Week

In the build up to the Spring 2022 RISC-V Week in Paris, the first such large open hardware meeting in years, an initial version of the AmbiML bare metal ML flow was released as open source. This includes both the ability to run interactively and an example CI using Antmicro’s GitHub Renode Action showing how such a workflow can be tested automatically on each commit. As a Google Cloud partner, Antmicro is currently working with Google Cloud to make Renode available for massive scale CI testing and deployments for scenarios similar to this one.

In a joint talk at the Paris event, Antmicro and Google presented the software co-development flow, together with a demo of a heterogeneous multi-core solution, with one core running the AmbiML Springbok payload and another core running Zephyr.

In the presented scenario the Springbok core, acting as a ML compute offload unit to the main CPU, executed inference on the MobileNetv1 network and reported the work done to the application core via a RISC-V custom instruction. Adding and modifying custom instructions is trivial in Renode, either via a single line of Python, C#, or even co-simulated in RTL.

Renode helps ML developers and silicon designers not only to run and test their solutions, but also to learn more about what their software is actually doing. As part of the Paris demonstration, Antmicro and Google showed how you can count executed instructions and how often specific opcodes are used to measure how well your solution is performing. These features, accompanied by execution metrics analysis, executed functions logging, and recently developed execution trace generation, give you great insight into every detail of your emulated ML environment.

These capabilities join the wide arsenal of hardware/software co-development solutions in Renode, such as RTL co-simulation which Antmicro has been developing with Microchip and support for verilated custom instructions developed with another ML-focused Google team responsible for RISC-V Custom Function Units and also used in the EU-funded VEDLIoT project.

Future plans

This is just the beginning of a wider activity from the Google Research team Antmicro is working with to release software and hardware components as well as tools supporting a collaborative co-design ecosystem for secure ML development. If you think Renode, RISC-V and co-development could help in building your next ML-focused product, go ahead and try the AmbiML flow yourself!

Visit the iree-rv32-springbok repository on GitHub, clone it locally and follow the instructions from

Renode Repository

You can also grab Renode from the official repository and start playing with the available demos, or head to the Renode documentation to read up on features helpful for ML acceleration development such as Verilator co-simulation.

By Peter Zierhoffer – Antmicro

Google and NIST partner on nanotechnology development platform

Tuesday, September 13, 2022

We’re proud to announce Google’s cooperative research and development agreement with the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to develop an open source testbed for nanotechnology research and development for American universities. NIST—a bureau of the U.S. Department of Commerce—will start by migrating their existing planarized wafer designs to an open source framework, which can be manufactured in the U.S. on SkyWater Technologies’ open source 130nm process (SKY130). The physical wafers and source code will be available in the coming months. Together, NIST, Google, and the open source community will develop designs to facilitate research into both basic and applied science, including technology transfer into production with U.S. manufacturers.

Furthering Google’s goals to improve access to semiconductor technology, this agreement will provide academic researchers with unprecedented resources from a semiconductor foundry to enhance research into the physics of semiconductors and nanodevices. This includes their chemistry, defects, electrical properties, high frequency operation, and switching behavior, while reducing overall costs through economies of scale. Most importantly, this access enhances the technology transfer process by enabling researchers to develop new and emerging technologies using foundry resources, that can then be seamlessly transitioned into mass production since universities will already be using an industrially relevant platform. This will greatly improve scientist’s ability to move their technologies through the tech-transfer “valley of death” and into practical use.

Nanotechnology research has benefitted from silicon wafers that are normally used for chip manufacturing in a unique way. Instead of turning them into packaged microchips, their smooth, planarized surface makes a great substrate for building and testing nanoscale structures. This likewise helps test their transition into mass production.

Picture of a full wafer using the SKY130 open source PDK.

Picture of a full wafer using the SKY130 open source PDK.

The wafer for this platform has a number of different metrology structures, from parametric test structures based on simple transistor arrays—which can be probed in a probe station—to thousands of complex measurements that users can operate using synthesized digital circuits. Critically, the wafers will be available to universities in a 200 mm form factor, and mid-production planarized wafers with less than a single nanometer of surface roughness. Smooth, flat surfaces are critical for advanced manufacturing at small sizes.

NIST researchers are also ensuring that the wafers have photolithographic and electron beam alignment marks commonly found in university nanofabrication facilities, allowing the foundry silicon to be used directly by university researchers with ease. Metal pads on the surface will allow scientists to access the semiconductor transistors from the surface.

NIST scientists anticipate the nanotechnology accelerator platform will enhance scientific investigations into a diverse set of technologies, including memory devices (resistive switches, magnetic tunnel junctions, flash memories), artificial intelligence, plasmonics, semiconductor bioelectronics, thin film transistors and even quantum information science.

Picture of a development die from Google 's OpenMPW program for the nanotechnology accelerator developed by NIST and the University of Michigan

Picture of a development die from Google 's OpenMPW program for the nanotechnology accelerator developed by NIST and the University of Michigan

This program also benefits from Google’s previous contributions and support of the GDSFactory and OpenFASOC open source projects that help automate and shorten the construction of these important measuring devices from months to days. Ahead of the full wafer tapeout in 2023, NIST scientists, working with partners at the University of Michigan, Carnegie Mellon, University of Maryland, The George Washington University, and Brown University have been using Google's OpenMPW program to develop and test preliminary circuits which they expect to include in the nanotechnology accelerator. Preliminary testing will help ensure the program’s goals are met with working circuits that best serve the scientific community.

A key factor in cutting-edge research is reproducibility, or the ability for researchers from different institutions to repeat each other’s experiments and improve upon them. By migrating to an open source framework, researchers can more easily share reproducible results, contribute to the creation of open source datasets to enhance future simulation, and advance the scientific community’s state of the art of nanotechnology and semiconductor manufacturing.

NIST and Google will distribute the first production run of wafers to leading U.S. universities. Post-program, American scientists will be able to directly purchase the wafers from Skywater without license requirements, giving them the freedom to pursue their research without any restrictions. Since wafers are hundreds of times cheaper than full mask-sets or the cost of designing integrated circuits from scratch, scientists will have a much easier time getting and using this powerful industrial technology. Longer term, working with NIST to develop future platforms on the recently announced SKY90FD open source PDK will further expand this R&D ecosystem.

To kick off this research effort NIST is organizing the "NIST Integrated Circuits for Metrology Workshop" from September 20–21, 2022. This workshop will be held online with a series of presentations and panel discussions on the first day. During the second day, a working group of researchers, scientists and engineers will work to focus on the creation of parametric test structures for monolithic integration using open source silicon technology. Visit the event website to get more details about this program and register to attend or learn more about presenting.

By Ethan Mahintorabi and Johan Euphrosine, Software Engineers – Hardware Toolchains Team, and Aaron Cunningham, Technical Program Manager – Google Open Source Programs Office

Accelerate your models to production with Google Cloud and PyTorch

Monday, September 12, 2022

We believe in the power of choice for Machine Learning development, and continue to invest resources to make it easy for ML practitioners to train, deploy, and orchestrate models from a single unified data and AI cloud platform. We’re excited to announce our role as a founding member of the newly formed PyTorch Foundation, which will better position Google Cloud to make meaningful contributions to the PyTorch community. As a member of the board, we will deepen our open source investment to deliver on the Foundation’s mission to drive adoption of AI tooling by building an ecosystem of open source projects with PyTorch. We strongly believe in choice and will continue to invest in frameworks such as JAX and Tensorflow and support integrations with other OSS Projects including Spark, Airflow, XGBoost, and others.

In this blog, we provide an overview of existing resources to help you get started with PyTorch on Google Cloud. We also talk about how ML practitioners can leverage our end-to-end ML platform to train, tune, and deploy PyTorch models.

PyTorch on Google Cloud

Open source in the cloud is important because it gives you flexibility and control over where you train and deploy your ML workloads. PyTorch is extensively used in the research space and in recent years it has gained immense traction in the industry due to its ease of use and deployment. In fact, according to a survey of Kaggle users, PyTorch is the fastest growing ML framework today.

ML practitioners using PyTorch tell us that it can be challenging to advance their ML project past experimentation. This is why Google Cloud has built integrations with PyTorch that make it easier to train, deploy, and orchestrate models in production. Some examples are:

  • PyTorch integrates directly with Vertex AI, a fully managed ML platform that provides the tools you need to take a model from PyTorch to production, like the Pytorch DL containers or the Vertex AI workbench PyTorch one-click JupyterLab environment.
  • PyTorch/XLA, an open source library, uses the XLA deep learning compiler to enable PyTorch to run on Cloud TPUs. Cloud TPUs are custom accelerators designed by Google, optimized for perf/TCO with large scale ML workload PyTorch/XLA also enables XLA driven optimizations on GPUs.
  • TorchX provides an adapter to run and orchestrate TorchX components as part of Kubeflow Pipelines that you can easily scale on Vertex AI Pipelines.
  • With our OSS contributions to Apache Beam, we have made PyTorch models easy to deploy in batch or stream, data processing pipelines. Running on Google Dataflow, these pipelines will scale to very large workloads in a fully managed and simple to maintain environment.

To learn more and start using PyTorch on Google Cloud, check out the resources below:

PyTorch on Vertex AI Resources

  1. How To train and tune PyTorch models on Vertex AI: Learn how to use Vertex AI Training to build and train a sentiment text classification model using PyTorch and Vertex AI Hyperparameter Tuning to tune hyperparameters of PyTorch models.
  2. How to deploy PyTorch models on Vertex AI: Walk through the deployment of a Pytorch model using TorchServe as a custom container, by deploying the model artifacts to a Vertex Prediction service.
  3. Orchestrating PyTorch ML Workflows on Vertex AI Pipelines: See how to build and orchestrate ML pipelines for training and deploying PyTorch models on Google Cloud Vertex AI using Vertex AI Pipelines.
  4. Scalable ML Workflows using PyTorch on Kubeflow Pipelines and Vertex Pipelines: Take a look at examples of PyTorch-based ML workflows on two pipelines frameworks: OSS Kubeflow Pipelines, part of the Kubeflow project, and Vertex AI Pipelines. We share new PyTorch built-in components added to the Kubeflow Pipelines.

PyTorch/XLA and Cloud TPU/GPU

  1. Scaling deep learning workloads with PyTorch / XLA and Cloud TPU VM: Describes the challenges associated with scaling deep learning jobs to distributed training settings, using the Cloud TPU VM and shows how to stream training data from Google Cloud Storage (GCS) to PyTorch / XLA models running on Cloud TPU Pod slices.
  2. PyTorch/XLA: Performance debugging on Cloud TPU VM: Part I: In the first part of the performance debugging series on Cloud TPU, we lay out the conceptual framework for PyTorch/XLA in the context of training performance. We introduced a case study to make sense of preliminary profiler logs and identify the corrective actions.
  3. PyTorch/XLA: Performance debugging on Cloud TPU VM: Part II: In the second part, we deep dive into further analysis of the performance debugging to discover more performance improvement opportunities.
  4. PyTorch/XLA: Performance debugging on Cloud TPU VM: Part III: In the final part of the performance debugging series, we introduce user defined code annotation and visualize these annotations in the form of a trace.
  5. Train ML models with Pytorch Lightning on TPUs: Learn how easy it is to start training models with PyTorch Lightning on TPUs with its built-in TPU support.

PyTorch on Apache Beam and Google Cloud Dataflow

  1. Integrating ML models into production pipelines with Dataflow: Learn how to use Apache Beam's RunInference transform, with either single or multi model pipelines at scale.

Other resources

  1. Increase your productivity using PyTorch Lightning: Learn how to use PyTorch Lightning on Vertex AI Workbench (was previously Notebooks).

By Erwin Huizing and Grace Reed – Cloud AI and ML

TestParameterInjector gets JUnit5 support

Wednesday, September 7, 2022

In March 2021, we announced the open source release of TestParameterInjector: A parameterized test runner for JUnit4 (see GitHub page).

Over a year later, the Google-internal usage of TestParameterInjector has continued to rapidly grow, and is now by far the most popular parameterized test framework.
Graph of the different parameterized test frameworks in Google
Guava's philosophy frames it nicely: "When trying to estimate the ubiquity of a feature, we frequently use the Google internal code base as a reference." We also believe that TestParameterInjector usage in Google is a decent proxy for its utility elsewhere.

As you can see on the graph above, not only did TestParameterInjector reduce the usage of the other frameworks, but it also caused a drastic increase of the total amount of parameterized tests. This suggests that TestParameterInjector reduced the threshold for parameterizing a regular unit test and Googlers are more actively using this tool to improve the quality of their tests.

JUnit5 (Jupiter) support

At Google, we use JUnit4 exclusively, but some developers outside of Google have moved on to JUnit5 (Jupiter). For those users, we have now expanded the scope of TestParameterInjector.

We've kept the API the same as much as possible:

// **************** JUnit4 **************** //


public class MyTest {

  @TestParameter boolean isDryRun;

  @Test public void test1(@TestParameter boolean enableFlag) { ... }

  @Test public void test2(@TestParameter MyEnum myEnum) { ... }

  enum MyEnum { VALUE_A, VALUE_B, VALUE_C }


// **************** JUnit5 (Jupiter) **************** //

class MyTest {

  @TestParameter boolean isDryRun;


  void test1(@TestParameter boolean enableFlag) {

    // This method is run 4 times for all combinations of isDryRun and enableFlag



  void test2(@TestParameter MyEnum myEnum) {

    // This method is run 6 times for all combinations of isDryRun and myEnum


  enum MyEnum { VALUE_A, VALUE_B, VALUE_C }


The only differences are that @RunWith / @ExtendWith are not necessary and that every test method needs a @TestParameterInjectorTest annotation.

The other features of TestParameterInjector work in a similar way with Jupiter:

class MyTest {

  // **************** Defining sets of parameters **************** //


  @TestParameters(customName = "teenager", value = "{age: 17, expectIsAdult: false}")

  @TestParameters(customName = "young adult", value = "{age: 22, expectIsAdult: true}")

  void personIsAdult_success(int age, boolean expectIsAdult) {



  // **************** Dynamic parameter generation **************** //


  void matchesAllOf_throwsOnNull(

      @TestParameter(valuesProvider = CharMatcherProvider.class) CharMatcher charMatcher) {

    assertThrows(NullPointerException.class, () -> charMatcher.matchesAllOf(null));


  private static final class CharMatcherProvider implements TestParameterValuesProvider {


    public List<CharMatcher> provideValues() {

      return ImmutableList.of(

          CharMatcher.any(), CharMatcher.ascii(), CharMatcher.whitespace());




Other things we've been working on

Custom names for @TestParameters
When running the following parameterized test:


@TestParameters("{age: 17, expectIsAdult: false}")

@TestParameters("{age: 22, expectIsAdult: true}")

public void withRepeatedAnnotation(int age, boolean expectIsAdult){ ... }

the generated test names will be:

MyTest#withRepeatedAnnotation[{age: 17, expectIsAdult: false}]

MyTest#withRepeatedAnnotation[{age: 22, expectIsAdult: true}]

This is fine for small parameter sets, but when the number of @TestParameters or parameters within the YAML string gets large, it quickly becomes hard to figure out what each parameter set is supposed to represent.

For those cases, we added the option to add customName:


@TestParameters(customName = "teenager", value = "{age: 17, expectIsAdult: false}")

@TestParameters(customName = "young adult", value = "{age: 22, expectIsAdult: true}")

public void personIsAdult(int age, boolean expectIsAdult){...}

To allow this API change, we had to allow @TestParameters to be used in a different way: The original way of specifying @TestParameters sets was to specify them as a list of YAML strings inside a single @TestParameters annotation. We considered multiple options of specifying the custom name inside of these YAML strings, such as a magic 
_name key and an extra YAML mapping layer where the keys would be the test names. But we eventually settled on the aforementioned API, which makes @TestParameters a repeated annotation because it results in the least complex code and clearly separates the different parameter sets.

It should be noted that the original API (list of YAML strings in single annotation) still works, but it is now discouraged in favor of multiple @TestParameters annotations with a single YAML string, even when customName isn't used. The main arguments for this recommendation are:
  • Consistency with the customName case, which needs a single YAML string per @TestParameters annotation
  • We believe it structures the list of parameters (especially when it's long) in a more structured way

Integration with RobolectricTestRunner

Recently, we've managed to internally make a version of RobolectricTestRunner that supports TestParameterInjector annotations. There is a significant amount of work left to open source this, and we are now considering when and how to do this.

Learn more

Our GitHub README provides an overview of the framework. Let us know on GitHub if you have any questions, comments, or feature requests!

By Jens Nyman – TestParameterInjector