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AutoFlip: An Open Source Framework for Intelligent Video Reframing

Friday, February 14, 2020

Originally posted on the AI Blog

Videos filmed and edited for television and desktop are typically created and viewed in landscape aspect ratios (16:9 or 4:3). However, with an increasing number of users creating and consuming content on mobile devices, historical aspect ratios don’t always fit the display being used for viewing. Traditional approaches for reframing video to different aspect ratios usually involve static cropping, i.e., specifying a camera viewport, then cropping visual contents that are outside. Unfortunately, these static cropping approaches often lead to unsatisfactory results due to the variety of composition and camera motion styles. More bespoke approaches, however, typically require video curators to manually identify salient contents on each frame, track their transitions from frame-to-frame, and adjust crop regions accordingly throughout the video. This process is often tedious, time-consuming, and error-prone.

To address this problem, we are happy to announce AutoFlip, an open source framework for intelligent video reframing. AutoFlip is built on top of the MediaPipe framework that enables the development of pipelines for processing time-series multimodal data. Taking a video (casually shot or professionally edited) and a target dimension (landscape, square, portrait, etc.) as inputs, AutoFlip analyzes the video content, develops optimal tracking and cropping strategies, and produces an output video with the same duration in the desired aspect ratio.
Left: Original video (16:9). Middle: Reframed using a standard central crop (9:16). Right: Reframed with AutoFlip (9:16). By detecting the subjects of interest, AutoFlip is able to avoid cropping off important visual content.

AutoFlip Overview

AutoFlip provides a fully automatic solution to smart video reframing, making use of state-of-the-art ML-enabled object detection and tracking technologies to intelligently understand video content. AutoFlip detects changes in the composition that signify scene changes in order to isolate scenes for processing. Within each shot, video analysis is used to identify salient content before the scene is reframed by selecting a camera mode and path optimized for the contents.

Shot (Scene) Detection

A scene or shot is a continuous sequence of video without cuts (or jumps). To detect the occurrence of a shot change, AutoFlip computes the color histogram of each frame and compares this with prior frames. If the distribution of frame colors changes at a different rate than a sliding historical window, a shot change is signaled. AutoFlip buffers the video until the scene is complete before making reframing decisions, in order to optimize the reframing for the entire scene.

Video Content Analysis

We utilize deep learning-based object detection models to find interesting, salient content in the frame. This content typically includes people and animals, but other elements may be identified, depending on the application, including text overlays and logos for commercials, or motion and ball detection for sports.

The face and object detection models are integrated into AutoFlip through MediaPipe, which uses TensorFlow Lite on CPU. This structure allows AutoFlip to be extensible, so developers may conveniently add new detection algorithms for different use cases and video content. Each object type is associated with a weight value, which defines its relative importance — the higher the weight, the more influence the feature will have when computing the camera path.


Left: People detection on sports footage. Right: Two face boxes (‘core’ and ‘all’ face landmarks). In narrow portrait crop cases, often only the core landmark box can fit.

Reframing

After identifying the subjects of interest on each frame, logical decisions about how to reframe the content for a new view can be made. AutoFlip automatically chooses an optimal reframing strategy — stationary, panning or tracking — depending on the way objects behave during the scene (e.g., moving around or stationary). In stationary mode, the reframed camera viewport is fixed in a position where important content can be viewed throughout the majority of the scene. This mode can effectively mimic professional cinematography in which a camera is mounted on a stationary tripod or where post-processing stabilization is applied. In other cases, it is best to pan the camera, moving the viewport at a constant velocity. The tracking mode provides continuous and steady tracking of interesting objects as they move around within the frame.

Based on which of these three reframing strategies the algorithm selects, AutoFlip then determines an optimal cropping window for each frame, while best preserving the content of interest. While the bounding boxes track the objects of focus in the scene, they typically exhibit considerable jitter from frame-to-frame and, consequently, are not sufficient to define the cropping window. Instead, we adjust the viewport on each frame through the process of Euclidean-norm optimization, in which we minimize the residuals between a smooth (low-degree polynomial) camera path and the bounding boxes.

Top: Camera paths resulting from following the bounding boxes from frame-to-frame. Bottom: Final smoothed camera paths generated using Euclidean-norm path formation. Left: Scene in which objects are moving around, requiring a tracking camera path. Right: Scene where objects stay close to the same position; a stationary camera covers the content for the full duration of the scene.

AutoFlip’s configuration graph provides settings for either best-effort or required reframing. If it becomes infeasible to cover all the required regions (for example, when they are too spread out on the frame), the pipeline will automatically switch to a less aggressive strategy by applying a letterbox effect, padding the image to fill the frame. For cases where the background is detected as being a solid color, this color is used to create seamless padding; otherwise a blurred version of the original frame is used.

AutoFlip Use Cases

We are excited to release this tool directly to developers and filmmakers, reducing the barriers to their design creativity and reach through the automation of video editing. The ability to adapt any video format to various aspect ratios is becoming increasingly important as the diversity of devices for video content consumption continues to rapidly increase. Whether your use case is portrait to landscape, landscape to portrait, or even small adjustments like 4:3 to 16:9, AutoFlip provides a solution for intelligent, automated and adaptive video reframing.


What’s Next?

Like any machine learning algorithm, AutoFlip can benefit from an improved ability to detect objects relevant to the intent of the video, such as speaker detection for interviews or animated face detection on cartoons. Additionally, a common issue arises when input video has important overlays on the edges of the screen (such as text or logos) as they will often be cropped from the view. By combining text/logo detection and image inpainting technology, we hope that future versions of AutoFlip can reposition foreground objects to better fit the new aspect ratios. Lastly, in situations where padding is required, deep uncrop technology could provide improved ability to expand beyond the original viewable area.

While we work to improve AutoFlip internally at Google, we encourage contributions from developers and filmmakers in the open source communities.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank our colleagues who contributed to Autoflip, Alexander Panagopoulos, Jenny Jin, Brian Mulford, Yuan Zhang, Alex Chen, Xue Yang, Mickey Wang, Justin Parra, Hartwig Adam, Jingbin Wang, and Weilong Yang; MediaPipe team who helped with open sourcing, Jiuqiang Tang, Tyler Mullen, Mogan Shieh, Ming Guang Yong, and Chuo-Ling Chang.

By Nathan Frey, Senior Software Engineer, Google Research, Los Angeles and Zheng Sun, Senior Software Engineer, Google Research, Mountain View

HarbourBridge: From PostgreSQL to Cloud Spanner

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Would you like to try out Cloud Spanner with data from an existing PostgreSQL database? Maybe you’ve wanted to ‘kick the tires’ on Spanner, but have been discouraged by the effort involved?

Today, we’re announcing a tool that makes trying out Cloud Spanner using PostgreSQL data simple and easy.

HarbourBridge is a tool that loads Spanner with the contents of an existing PostgreSQL database. It requires zero configuration—no manifests or data maps to write. Instead, it ingests pg_dump output, automatically builds a Spanner schema, and creates a new Spanner database populated with data from pg_dump.

HarbourBridge is part of the Cloud Spanner Ecosystem, a collection of public, open source repositories contributed to, owned, and maintained by the Cloud Spanner user community. None of these repositories are officially supported by Google as part of Cloud Spanner.

Get up and running fast

HarbourBridge is designed to simplify Spanner evaluation, and in particular to bootstrap the process by getting moderate-size PostgreSQL datasets into Spanner (up to a few GB). Many features of PostgreSQL, especially those that don't map directly to Spanner features, are ignored, e.g. (non-primary) indexes, functions and sequences.

View HarbourBridge as a way to get up and running fast, so you can focus on critical things like tuning performance and getting the most out of Spanner. Expect that you'll need to tweak and enhance what HarbourBridge produces—More on this later.

Quick-start guide

The HarbourBridge README contains a step-by-step quick-start guide. We’ll quickly review the main steps. Before you begin, you'll need a Cloud Spanner instance, Cloud Spanner API enabled for your Google Cloud project, authentication credentials configured to use the Cloud API, and Go installed on your development machine.

To download HarbourBridge and install it, run
go get -u github.com/cloudspannerecosystem/harbourbridge
The tool should now be installed as $GOPATH/bin/harbourbridge. To use HarbourBridge on a PostgreSQL database called mydb, run
pg_dump mydb | $GOPATH/bin/harbourbridge
The tool will use the cloud project specified by the GCLOUD_PROJECT environment variable, automatically determine the Cloud Spanner instance associated with this project, convert the PostgreSQL schema for mydb to a Spanner schema, create a new Cloud Spanner database with this schema, and finally, populate this new database with the data from mydb. HarbourBridge also generates several files when it runs: a schema file, a report file (with details of the conversion), and a bad data file (if any data is dropped). See Files Generated by HarbourBridge.

Take care with ACLs

Note that PostgreSQL table-level and row-level ACLs are dropped during conversion since they are not supported by Spanner (Spanner manages access control at the database level). All data written to Spanner will be visible to anyone who can access the database created by HarbourBridge (which inherits default permissions from your Cloud Spanner instance).

Next steps

The tables created by HarbourBridge provide a starting point for evaluation of Spanner. While they preserve much of the core structure of your PostgreSQL schema and data, many important PostgreSQL features have been dropped.

In particular, HarbourBridge preserves primary keys but drops all other indexes. This means that the out-of-the-box performance you get from the tables created by HarbourBridge can be significantly slower than PostgreSQL performance. If HarbourBridge has dropped indexes that are important to the performance of your SQL queries, consider adding Secondary Indexes to the tables created by HarbourBridge. Use the existing PostgreSQL indexes as a guide. In addition, Spanner's Interleaved Tables can provide a significant performance boost.

Other dropped features include functions, sequences, procedures, triggers, and views. In addition, types have been mapped based on the types supported by Spanner. Types such as integers, floats, char/text, bools, timestamps and (some) array types map fairly directly to Spanner, but many other types do not and instead are mapped to Spanner's STRING(MAX). See Schema Conversion for details of the type conversions and their tradeoffs.

Recap

HarbourBridge automates much of the manual work of trying out Cloud Spanner using PostgreSQL data. The goal is to bootstrap your evaluation and help get you to the meaty issues as quickly as possible. The tables generated by HarbourBridge provide a starting point, but they will likely need to be tweaked and enhanced to support a full evaluation.

We encourage you to try out the tool, send feedback, file issues, fork and modify the codebase, and send PRs for fixes and new functionality. Our plans and aspirations for developing HarbourBridge further are outlined in the HarbourBridge Whitepaper. HarbourBridge is part of the Cloud Spanner Ecosystem, owned and maintained by the Cloud Spanner user community. It is not officially supported by Google as part of Cloud Spanner.

By Nevin Heintze, Cloud Spanner

Importing SA360 WebQuery reports to BigQuery

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Context

Search Ads 360 (SA360) is an enterprise-class search campaign management platform used by marketers to manage global ad campaigns across multiple engines. It offers powerful reporting capability through WebQuery reports, API, BiqQuery and Datastudio connectors.

Effective Ad campaign management requires multi-dimensional analysis of campaign data along with customers’ first-party data by building custom reports with dimensions combined from paid-search reports and business data.

Customers’ business data resides in a data-warehouse, which is designed for analysis, insights and reporting. To integrate ads data into the data-warehouse, the usual approach is to bring/ load the campaign data into the warehouse; to achieve this, SA360 offers various options to retrieve paid-search data, each of these methods provide a unique capabilities.
Comparison AreaWebQueryBQ ConnectorDatastudio ConnectorAPI
Technical complexityLow
Medium
Medium
High
Ease of report customizationHigh
Medium
Low
High
Reporting DetailsCompleteLimited
Reports not supported on API are not available
E.g.
Location targets
Remarketing targets
Audience reports
Possible Data WarehouseAny
The report is generic and needs to be loaded into the data-warehouse using DWs custom loading methods.
BigQuery ONLYNoneAny
Comparing these approaches, in terms of technical knowledge required, as well as, support for data warehousing solution, the easiest one is WebQuery report for which a marketer can build a report by choosing the dimensions/metrics they want on the SA360 User Interface.

BigQuery data-transfer service is limited to importing data in BigQuery and Datastudio connector does not allow retrieving data.

WebQuery offers a simpler and customizable method than other alternatives and also offers more options for the kind of data (vs. BQ transfer service which does not bring Business Data from SA360 to BigQuery). It was originally designed for Microsoft Excel to provide an updatable view of a report. In the era of cloud computing, a need was felt for a tool which would help consume the report and make it available on an analytical platform or a cloud data warehouse like BigQuery.

Solution Approach

This tool showcases how to bridge this gap of bringing SA360 data to a data warehouse, in generic fashion, where the report from SA360 is fetched in XML format and converted it into a CSV file using SAX parsers. This CSV file is then transferred to staging storage to be finally ETLed into the Data Warehouse.

As a concrete example, we chose to showcase a solution with BigQuery as the destination (cloud) data warehouse, though the solution architecture is flexible for any other system.

Conclusion

The tool helps marketers bring advertising data closer to their analytical systems helping them derive better insights. In case you use BigQuery as your Data Warehouse, you can use this tool as-is. You can also adopt by adding components for analytical/data-warehousing systems you use and improve it for the larger community.

To get started, follow our step-by-step guide.
Notable Features of the tool are as following:
  • Modular Authorization module
  • Handle arbitrarily large web-query reports
  • Batch mode to process multiple reports in a single call
  • Can be used as part of ETL workflow (Airflow compatible)
By Anant Damle, Solutions Architect and Meera Youn, Technical Partnership Lead
.